Sacramento California Real Estate and Community Information

Sacramento California Real Estate and Community Information

All About Sacramento California

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Sacramento (/ˌsækrəˈmɛnt/ SAK-rə-MEN-tohSpanish: [sakɾaˈmento]) is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California‘s Sacramento Valley, Sacramento’s estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Assembly, the Governor of California, and Supreme Court of California, making it the state’s political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is also the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California.

Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of Sacramento State University and University of California, Davis. Similarly, Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, and the UC Davis School of Medicine, and notable tourist destination in California, as the site of The California Museum, the Crocker Art MuseumCalifornia Hall of Fame, the California State Capitol Museum, and the Old Sacramento State Historic Park. Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, dubbed the most “hipster city” in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento “America’s Most Diverse City”.

Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the Nisenan people indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Rio del Santísimo Sacramento (Sacramento River) in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista AlvaradoMexican governor of Alta California granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born, Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter’s Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento. As a result of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento became a major commercial center and distribution point for Northern California, serving as the terminus for the Pony Express and the First Transcontinental Railroad.

Pre-Columbian period

Nisenan (Southern Maidu) and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, and by fruits, bulbs, seeds, and roots gathered throughout the year.

Spanish period

Sutter’s Fort was founded in 1840 by John Augustus Sutter during the period of Mexican California.

In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: “Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths. The air was like champagne, and (the Spaniards) drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. “¡Es como el sagrado sacramento! (It’s like the Blessed Sacrament.)” The valley and the river were then christened after the “Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ”, referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist.

Mexican period

John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres. The next year, he and his party established Sutter’s Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick.

Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. Later that same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire,however, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.’s “empire” had been built on some very thin margins of credit.

American period

Sacramento in 1849, when the city was an economic center of the California Gold Rush.

In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter’s Mill in Coloma (located some 50 miles (80.5 km) northeast of the fort), a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population. In August 1848 Sutter Sr.’s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father’s indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter’s case, rather than being a ‘boon’ for Sutter, his employee’s discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal ‘bane’ for him.

By December 1848, John Sutter Jr., in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father’s settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr., however the father, being deeply in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For commercial reasons the new city was named “Sacramento City,” after the Sacramento River. Sutter Jr. and Brannon hired topographical engineer William H. Warner to draft the official layout of the city, which included 26 lettered and 31 numbered streets (today’s grid from C St. to Broadway and from Front St. to Alhambra Blvd.). Unfortunately, a certain bitterness grew between the elder Sutter and his son as Sacramento became an overnight commercial success (Sutter’s Fort, Mill and the town of Sutterville, all founded by John Sutter, Sr., would eventually fail).

The citizens of Sacramento adopted a city charter in 1849, which was recognized by the state legislature in 1850. Sacramento is the oldest incorporated city in California, incorporated on February 27, 1850. During the early 1850s, the Sacramento valley was devastated by floods, fires and cholera epidemics. Despite this, because of its position just downstream from the Mother Lode in the Sierra Nevada, the new city grew, quickly reaching a population of 10,000.

Old Sacramento is the settlement that grew out of Sutter’s Fort.

The California State Legislature, with the support of Governor John Bigler, moved to Sacramento in 1854. The capital of California under Spanish (and, subsequently, Mexican) rule had been Monterey, where in 1849 the first Constitutional Convention and state elections were held. The convention decided that San Jose would be the new state’s capital. After 1850, when California’s statehood was ratified, the legislature met in San Jose until 1851, Vallejo in 1852, and Benicia in 1853, before moving to Sacramento. In the Sacramento Constitutional Convention of 1879, Sacramento was named to be the permanent state capital.

Begun in 1860 to be reminiscent of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., the Classical Revival style California State Capitol was completed in 1874. In 1861, the legislative session was moved to the Merchants Exchange Building in San Francisco for one session because of massive flooding in Sacramento. The legislative chambers were first occupied in 1869 while construction continued. From 1862 to 1868, part of the Leland Stanford Mansion was used for the governor’s offices during Stanford’s tenure as the Governor; and the legislature met in the Sacramento County Courthouse.

With its new status and strategic location, Sacramento quickly prospered and became the western end of the Pony Express. Later it became a terminus of the First Transcontinental Railroad, which began construction in Sacramento in 1863 and was financed by “The Big Four“—Mark HopkinsCharles CrockerCollis P. Huntington, and Leland Stanford. Both the American and especially Sacramento rivers would be key elements in the economic success of the city. In fact, Sacramento effectively controlled commerce on these rivers, and public works projects were funded though taxes levied on goods unloaded from boats and loaded onto rail cars in the historic Sacramento Rail Yards.

In 1850 and again in 1861, Sacramento citizens were faced with a completely flooded town. In 1861, Governor Leland Stanford, who was inaugurated in early January 1861, had to attend his inauguration in a rowboat, which was not too far from his house in town on N street. The flood waters were so bad, the legend says, that when he returned to his house, he had to enter into it through the second floor window. From 1862 until the mid-1870s Sacramento raised the level of its downtown by building reinforced brick walls on its downtown streets, and filling the resulting street walls with dirt. Thus the previous first floors of buildings became the basements, with open space between the street and the building, previously the sidewalk, now at the basement level. Over the years, many of these underground spaces have been filled or destroyed by subsequent development. However, it is still possible to view portions of the “Sacramento Underground“.

Modern era

Tower Bridge, which connects Sacramento to West Sacramento, was built in 1935 and is a California Historical Landmark.

The city’s current charter was adopted by voters in 1920.[22] As a charter city, Sacramento is exempt from many laws and regulations passed by the state legislature. The city has expanded continuously over the years. The 1964 merger of the City of North Sacramento with Sacramento substantially increased its population, and large annexations of the Natomas area eventually led to significant population growth throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.

Sacramento County (along with a portion of adjacent Placer County) is served by a customer-owned electric utility, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Sacramento voters approved the creation of SMUD in 1923. In April 1946, after 12 years of litigation, a judge ordered Pacific Gas & Electric to transfer title of Sacramento’s electric distribution system to SMUD. Today SMUD is the sixth-largest public electric utility in the U.S., and is a leader for innovative programs and services, including the development of clean fuel resources, such as solar power.

The Elks Tower was built in 1926 in an Italianate style.

The year following the creation of SMUD, 1924, brought several events in Sacramento: Standard Oil executive Verne McGeorge established McGeorge School of Law, American department store Weinstock & Lubin opened a new store at 12th and K street, the US$2 million Senator Hotel was open, Sacramento’s drinking water became filtered and treated drinking water, and Sacramento boxer Georgie Lee fought Francisco Guilledo, a Filipino professional boxer known as Pancho Villa, at L Street Auditorium on March 21.

Early in World War II, the Sacramento Assembly Center (also known as the Walerga Assembly Center) was established to house Japanese Americans forcibly “evacuated” from the West Coast under Executive Order 9066. The camp was one of fifteen temporary detention facilities where over 110,000 Japanese Americans, two-thirds of them U.S. citizens, were held while construction on the more permanent War Relocation Authority camps was completed. The assembly center was built on the site of a former migrant labor camp, and inmates began arriving from Sacramento and San Joaquin Counties on May 6, 1942. It closed after only 52 days, on June 26, and the population of 4,739 was transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp. The site was then turned over to the Army Signal Corps and dedicated as Camp Kohler.

After the war and the end of the incarceration program, returning Japanese Americans were often unable to find housing and so 234 families temporarily lived at the former assembly center. Camp Kohler was destroyed by a fire in December 1947, and the assembly center site is now part of the Foothill Farms-North Highlands subdivision. The Sacramento-Yolo Port District was created in 1947, and ground was broken on the Port of Sacramento in 1949.

On June 29, 1963, with 5,000 spectators waiting to welcome her, the Motor Vessel Taipei Victory arrived. The Nationalist Chinese flagship docked at the Port of Sacramento, being first ocean-going vessel in Sacramento since the steamship Harpoon in 1934.

In 1967, Ronald Reagan became the last Governor of California to live permanently in the city. The 1980s and 1990s saw the closure of several local military bases: McClellan Air Force BaseMather Air Force Base, and Sacramento Army Depot. In 1980, there was another flood.

In spite of military base closures and the decline of agricultural food processing, Sacramento has continued to experience population growth in recent years. Primary sources of population growth are an influx of residents from the nearby San Francisco Bay Area, as well as immigration from Asia and Latin America.

After acquiring the majority stake in the Sacramento Kings, the team’s new owner, Vivek Ranadivé with the help of the city, agreed to build a new Arena in the downtown area. With a final estimated cost of $558.2 million, Sacramento’s Golden 1 Center opened on September 30, 2016.

Revitalization

In 1988, the city embarked on a multi-million dollar plan to redevelop approximately 207 acres (0.8 km2) of land in the downtown core, and revitalize historic areas that had been in decline. Projects included the Vernon Streetscape Project, Atlantic Street Beautification, Civic Plaza Complex, Downtown Vernon Street and Historic Old Town, Historic Old Town Streetscape project, Riverside Avenue Streetscape project, Oak Street Improvement Project, and Washington Boulevard pedestrian underpass.  A new parking garage opened in 2007, the Roseville Arts! Blueline Gallery opened in 2008, a new Civic Center opened in 2013, and the Vernon Street Town Square now features a small raised stage, a water spray for children, and a venue for community events.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers an area of 100.1 square miles (259 km2), 97.81% of it land, and 2.19% of it water.

Depth to groundwater is typically about 30 feet (9 m). Much of the land to the west of the city (in Yolo County) is permanently reserved for a vast flood control basin (the Yolo Bypass), due to the city’s historical vulnerability to floods. As a result, the contiguous urban area sprawls only four miles (6 km) west of downtown (as West Sacramento, California) but 30 miles (48 km) northeast and east, into the Sierra Nevada foothills, and 10 miles (16 km) to the south into valley farmland.

The city is located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River, and has a deep-water port connected to the San Francisco Bay by a channel through the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. It is the shipping and rail center for the Sacramento Valley. Food processing is among the major industries in the area.

Cityscape

Panoramic view of downtown Sacramento from West Sacramento

City neighborhoods

Downtown Sacramento is the home to numerous corporations and organizations.

The city groups most of its neighborhoods into four areas:

Additional prominent regions and neighborhoods in the city include American River Parkway, Arden-Arcade, Arden Fair, Cal Expo, Capital Avenue, Coffing, College Glen, College Greens, Colonial Manor, Cordova, Creekside, East Fruitridge, Elder Creek, Elkhorn, Elvas, Erikson Industrial Park, Excelsior Sunrise, Foothill Farms, Franklin, Frates Ranch, Gateway Center, Gateway West, Glenwood Meadows, Hansen Park, Heritage Park, Johnson Business Park, Johnson Heights, Mayhew, Metro Center, Mills, Natomas Corporate Center, Natomas Creek, Natomas Crossing, Natomas Park, Newton Booth, Noralto, Northpointe, Norwood, Oak Knoll, Old North Sacramento, Parker Homes, Point West, Raley Industrial Park, Regency Park, Richardson Village, Richmond Grove, Rosemont, Sierra Oaks, Sports Complex, Strawberry Manor, Sundance Lake, Swanston Palms, Town and Country Village, Upper Land Park, Village 5, Village 7, Village 12, Village 14, Village Green, Walerga, Walsh Station, West Del Paso Heights, Westlake, Willowcreek, Wills Acres, Winn Park, Woodside and Youngs Heights.

Sacramento has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa), characterized by damp to wet, mild winters and moderately hot, dry summers. The wet season is generally October through April, though there may be a day or two of light rainfall in June or September. The normal annual mean temperature is 61.0 °F (16.1 °C), with the monthly daily average temperature ranging from 46.4 °F (8.0 °C) in December to 75.5 °F (24.2 °C) in July. Summer heat is often moderated by a sea breeze known as the “delta breeze” which comes through the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta from the San Francisco Bay, and temperatures cool down sharply at night.

The American River is popular for kayaking and recreational boating.

The foggiest months are December and January. Tule fog can be extremely dense, lowering visibility to less than 100 feet (30 m) and making driving conditions extremely hazardous. Chilling tule fog events have been known to last for several consecutive days or weeks. During Tule fog events, temperatures do not exceed 50 degrees.

Snowfall is rare in Sacramento, which is only 25 ft (7.6 m) above sea level. In the downtown area, there have been only 3 significant snow accumulations since 1900, the last one being in 1976. During especially cold winter and spring storms, intense showers do occasionally produce a significant amount of hail, which can create hazardous driving conditions. Snowfall that does fall in the city often melts upon ground contact, with traceable amounts occurring in some years. Significant annual snow accumulations occur in the foothills located 40 miles (64 km) east of the city, which had brief and traceable amounts of snowfall in January 2002, December 2009 and February 2011. The greatest snowfall ever recorded in Sacramento was 3 inches (8 cm) on January 5, 1888.

farmer’s market at Chavez Park.

On average, there are 73 days where the high exceeds 90 °F (32 °C), and 14 days where the high exceeds 100 °F (38 °C); On the other extreme, there are 15 days where the temperature does not exceed 50 °F (10 °C), and 15 freezing nights per year. Official temperature extremes range from 18 °F (−8 °C) on December 22, 1990 to 115 °F (46 °C) on June 15, 1961; a station around 5 mi (8.0 km) east-southeast of the city dipped to 17 °F (−8 °C) on December 11, 1932.

The average annual precipitation is 18.52 inches (470 mm). On average, precipitation falls on 60 days each year in Sacramento, and nearly all of this falls during the winter months. Average January rainfall is 3.67 in (93 mm), and measurable precipitation is rare during the summer months. In February 1992, Sacramento had 16 consecutive days of rain, resulting in an accumulation of 6.41 in (163 mm) for the period. On rare occasions, monsoonal moisture surges from the Desert Southwest can bring upper-level moisture to the Sacramento region, leading to increased summer cloudiness, humidity, and even light showers and thunderstorms. Monsoon clouds do occur, usually during late July through early September. Sacramento is the second most flood susceptible city in the United States after New Orleans.

Sacramento has been noted as being the sunniest location on the planet for three months of the year, from July through September. It holds the distinction as the sunniest month, in terms of percent possible sunshine, of anywhere in the world; July in Sacramento averages 14 hours and 12 minutes of sunshine per day, amounting to approximately 98% of possible sunshine.

n 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento “America’s Most Diverse City”. The U.S. Census Bureau also groups Sacramento with other U.S. cities having a “high diversity” rating of the diversity index. Moreover, Sacramento is one of the most well-integrated U.S. cities, having a relatively high level of ethnic and racial heterogeneity within its neighborhoods.

2010

The 2010 United States Census reported that Sacramento had a population of 466,488. The population density was 4,660.0 people per square mile (1,799.2/km2).

hideRacial composition 2010 1990 1970 1940
White 45.0% 60.1% 81.5% 94.2%
—Non-Hispanic 34.5% 53.4% 71.4% n/a
African American 14.6% 15.3% 10.7% 1.4%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 26.9% 16.2% 11.0% n/a
Asian 18.3% 15.0% 6.5% 4.3%

The racial makeup of Sacramento was:

  • 210,006 (45.0%) White
  • 68,335 (14.6%) African American
  • 85,503 (17.8%) Asian (4.2% Chinese, 3.3% Hmong, 2.8% Filipino, 1.6% Indian, 1.4% Vietnamese, 1.2% Laotian, 1.2% Japanese, 0.3% Pakistani, 0.3% Korean, 0.3% Thai, 0.2% Cambodian)
  • 6,655 (1.4%) Pacific Islander (0.6% Fijian, 0.2% Tongan, 0.2% Samoan)
  • 5,291 (1.1%) Native American
  • 57,573 (12.3%) other races
  • 33,125 (7.1%) from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 125,276 persons (26.9%); 22.6% of Sacramento’s population is of Mexican heritage, 0.7% Puerto Rican, 0.5% Salvadoran, 0.2% Guatemalan, and 0.2% Nicaraguan. Non-Hispanic Whites were 34.5% of the population in 2010, down from 71.4% in 1970.

Map of racial distribution in Sacramento, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: WhiteBlackAsianHispanic or Other (yellow)

The Census reported that 458,174 people (98.2% of the population) lived in households, 4,268 (0.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 4,046 (0.9%) were institutionalized. Also, with the recent housing crash there have been no changes to these numbers.

There were 174,624 households, out of which 57,870 (33.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 65,556 (37.5%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 27,640 (15.8%) had a female householder with no husband present, 10,534 (6.0%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 13,234 (7.6%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2,498 (1.4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 53,342 households (30.5%) were made up of individuals and 14,926 (8.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62. There were 103,730 families (59.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.37.

Sacramento has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita, ranking seventh among major American cities, and third in California behind San Francisco and slightly behind Oakland, with roughly 10% of the city’s total population identifying themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

The age distribution of the city was follows: 116,121 people (24.9%) were under the age of 18, 52,438 people (11.2%) aged 18 to 24, 139,093 people (29.8%) aged 25 to 44, 109,416 people (23.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 49,420 people (10.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.

There were 190,911 housing units at an average density of 1,907.1 per square mile (736.3/km2), of which 86,271 (49.4%) were owner-occupied, and 88,353 (50.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.3%. 231,593 people (49.6% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 226,581 people (48.6%) lived in rental housing units.

The Sacramento metropolitan area is the fifth largest in California after the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Inland Empire, and the San Diego metropolitan area, and is the 27th largest in the United States. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento “America’s Most Diverse City”.

Sutter HealthBlue Diamond GrowersAerojet RocketdyneTeichert, and The McClatchy Company are among the companies based in Sacramento.

The Port of Sacramento has been plagued with operating losses in recent years and faces bankruptcy. This severe loss in business is due to the heavy competition from the Port of Stockton, which has a larger facility and a deeper channel. As of 2006, the city of West Sacramento took responsibility for the Port of Sacramento. During the Vietnam War era, the Port of Sacramento was the major terminus in the supply route for all military parts, hardware and other cargo going to Southeast Asia.

Top employers

As of 2012, the top employers in the County of Sacramento were:

Higher education

The main campuses of the University of California, Davis are in Davis, California (top) and Central Sacramento (bottom).

Sacramento State University is one of the best ranked universities on the West Coast.

The Sacramento area hosts a wide variety of higher educational opportunities. There are two major public universities, many private institutions, community colleges, vocational schools, and McGeorge School of Law.

Sacramento is home to Sacramento State (California State University, Sacramento), founded as Sacramento State College in 1947. In 2004, enrollment was 22,555 undergraduates and 5,417 graduate students in the university’s eight colleges. The university’s mascot is the hornet, and the school colors are green and gold. The 300 acres (1.2 km2) campus is located along the American River Parkway a few miles east of downtown.

The University of California has a campus, UC Davis, in nearby Davis and has a graduate center in downtown Sacramento. The UC Davis Graduate School of Management (GSM) is near the UC Davis Medical Center off of Stockton Boulevard near Highway 50. Many students, about 400 out of 517, at the UC Davis GSM are working professionals and are completing their MBA part-time. The part-time program is ranked in the top-20 and is well known for its small class size, world class faculty, and involvement in the business community. UC also maintains the University of California Sacramento Center (UCCS) for undergraduate and graduate studies. Similar to the UC’s Washington, D.C., program, “Scholar Interns” engage in both academic studies and as well as internships, often with the state government. The UC Davis School of Medicine is located at the UC Davis Medical Center between the neighborhoods of ElmhurstTahoe Park, and Oak Park.

The Los Rios Community College District consists of several two-year colleges in the Sacramento area—American River CollegeCosumnes River CollegeSacramento City CollegeFolsom Lake College, plus a large number of outreach centers for those colleges. Sierra College is on the outskirts of Sacramento in Rocklin.

University of the Pacific has its Sacramento Campus in the Oak Park neighborhood of Sacramento. The campus has long included McGeorge School of Law and in 2015 was expanded to become a comprehensive graduate and professional campus, including programs in analytics, business, education, health sciences, and public policy.

The National University Sacramento regional campus offers bachelor’s and master’s degrees in business, education, health-care and teaching credential programs.

The University of San Francisco has one of its four regional campuses in Sacramento. At the undergraduate level they offer degrees in Applied Economics, Information Systems, Organizational Behavior and Leadership, and Public Administration. At the graduate level, Master’s programs are offered in: Information Security and Assurance, Information Systems, Organization Development, Project Management, Public Administration, Nonprofit Administration, and Counseling.

The private University of Southern California has an extension in downtown Sacramento, called the State Capital Center. The campus, taught by main campus professors, Sacramento-based professors, and practitioners in the State Capitol and state agencies, offers Master of Public Administration, Masters of Public Policy, and Master of Public Health degrees.

Epic Bible College and the Professional School of Psychology are also based in Sacramento. Western Seminary has one of its four campuses in Sacramento, which opened on the campus of Arcade Church in 1991. Western is an evangelical, Christian graduate school that provides theological training for students who hope to serve in a variety of ministry roles including pastors, marriage and family therapists, educators, missionaries and lay leadership. The Sacramento campus offers four master’s degrees, and a variety of other graduate-level programs.

A satellite campus of Alliant International University offers graduate and undergraduate programs of study.

The Art Institute of California – Sacramento was established in 2007, and is a branch of The Art Institute of California – Los Angeles. The school is focused on educating students in the field of commercial arts. The school offers both a Bachelor of Science and an Associate of Science degree, as well as diplomas in some areas of study. Some majors the school offers are Digital Film-making & Video Production, Culinary Management, Graphic Design, and Game Art & Design.

On J Street, there is the Lincoln Law School of Sacramento, a private, evening-only law school program with a strong legal presence in the region.

The Universal Technical Institute (UTI) is in Sacramento; it offers automotive programs in auto mechanical, auto body, and diesel.

Primary & secondary education

The historic C.K. McClatchy High School.

The Sacramento Public Library system has 28 branches located in the greater area. The Sacramento area is served by various public school districts, including the Sacramento City Unified School DistrictNatomas Unified School DistrictSan Juan Unified School DistrictTwin Rivers Unified School District, and Elk Grove Unified School District. As of 2009, the area’s schools employed 9,600 elementary school teachers (not including special education teachers), and 7,410 middle school teachers (not including special education or vocational teachers).

Almost all areas south of the American River are served by the Sacramento City Unified School District. The only exceptions are the Valley Hi/North Laguna and Florin areas that are served by the Elk Grove Unified School District.

Areas north of the American River are served by the remaining school districts. This area was not originally part of the City of Sacramento and as such is not served by Sacramento City Unified School District. North Sacramento outside of Natomas and Robla (for K-8) is served by the Twin Rivers Unified School District. The Robla area is served by the Robla School District for K-8 and by Twin Rivers for 9–12. The Natomas region is served by the Natomas Unified School District. The Campus Commons area and the small portions of the Sierra Oaks neighborhood that fall into the city of Sacramento are served by the San Juan Unified School District.

While Roman Catholic institutions still dominate the independent school scene in the Sacramento area, in 1964, Sacramento Country Day School opened and offered Sacramento citizens an independent school that is affiliated with the California Association of Independent Schools. SCDS has grown to its present-day status as a learning community for students from pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. Additionally, the suburb of Fair Oaks hosts the expansive riverside campus of the Sacramento Waldorf School, a Steiner school adjacent to the Rudolf Steiner College, and the largest Waldorf school in North America. Sacramento Waldorf School educates students from pre-K through 12th grade on a secluded, pastoral site that incorporates a large, functioning biodynamic farm.

Shalom School is the only Jewish day school in Sacramento; however, Brookefield School on property owned by Congregation B’nai Israel provides extracurricular Jewish education.

Capital Christian School is a pre-school–12th grade private, Christian school. There is a small Bible college on campus offering associate degrees in Bible studies or theology. Sacramento Adventist Academy is another Christian school in Greater Sacramento. This is a pre-school–12 institution, as well.

There is one Islamic school in Sacramento, Masjid Annur, founded in 1988.

The Sacramento metropolitan area is the fifth largest in California after the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Inland Empire, and the San Diego metropolitan area, and is the 27th largest in the United States. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento “America’s Most Diverse City”.

Sutter HealthBlue Diamond GrowersAerojet RocketdyneTeichert, and The McClatchy Company are among the companies based in Sacramento.

The Port of Sacramento has been plagued with operating losses in recent years and faces bankruptcy. This severe loss in business is due to the heavy competition from the Port of Stockton, which has a larger facility and a deeper channel. As of 2006, the city of West Sacramento took responsibility for the Port of Sacramento. During the Vietnam War era, the Port of Sacramento was the major terminus in the supply route for all military parts, hardware and other cargo going to Southeast Asia.

Top employers

As of 2012, the top employers in the County of Sacramento were:

# Employer Employees
1 State of California 69,763
2 Sacramento County 11,450
3 UC Davis Health 7,725
4 Dignity Health/Catholic Healthcare West 7,069
5 Intel 6,633
6 Kaiser Permanente 6,360
7 Sutter Health 5,765
8 Elk Grove Unified School District 5,021
9 Sacramento City Unified School District 5,000
10 San Juan Unified School District 4,700
11 City of Sacramento 4,083

Sacramento is home to one major league sports team — the Sacramento Kings of the National Basketball Association. The Kings came to Sacramento from Kansas City in 1985. On January 21, 2013, a controlling interest of the Sacramento Kings was sold to Chris Hansen, who intended to move the franchise to Seattle for the 2013–2014 NBA season and rename the team the Seattle SuperSonics. Sacramento Mayor Kevin Johnson fought the move, forming an ownership group led by Vivek Ranadive to keep the Kings in Sacramento. On May 16, 2013, the NBA Board of Governors voted 22–8 to keep the Kings in Sacramento.

Sacramento has two other professional teams. Sacramento Republic FC began play in April 2014 at Hughes Stadium before a sellout crowd of 20,231, setting a USL Pro regular-season single game attendance record. They now play in Papa Murphy’s Park. The Republic FC won the USL championship in their first season. In 2000, AAA minor league baseball returned to Sacramento with the Sacramento River Cats, an affiliate of the San Francisco Giants and formerly an affiliate of the Oakland Athletics. The River Cats play in Raley Field, in West Sacramento.

Sacramento is the former home of two professional basketball teams. The Sacramento Heatwave of the American Basketball Association previously played in the Sacramento area until 2013. Sacramento was also formerly home to the now defunct Sacramento Monarchs of the WNBA. The Monarchs were one of the eight founding members of the WNBA in 1997 and won the WNBA Championship in 2005, but folded in November 2009.

Sacramento professional teams (ranked by attendance)
Club League Sport Venue Attendance Established Championships
Sacramento Kings NBA Basketball Golden 1 Center 16,291 1923 (1985) 1 NBA, 2 NBL (as Rochester Royals)
Sacramento Republic FC USLC (D2) Soccer Papa Murphy’s Park 13,763 2012 1 USL Pro
Sacramento River Cats PCL (AAA) Baseball Raley Field 8,435 1978 (2000) 2 Triple-A titles, 4 League titles

Sacramento has frequently hosted the NCAA Men’s Outdoor Track and Field Championship as well as the 1st and 2nd rounds of the NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Championship. The California International Marathon (est. 1983) attracts a field of international elite runners who vie for a share of the $50,000 prize purse. The fast course is popular for runners seeking to achieve a Boston Marathon qualifying time and fitness runners.

Performing arts

There are several major theatre venues for Sacramento. The Sacramento Convention Center Complex governs both the Community Center Theatre and Memorial Auditorium. The Wells Fargo Pavilion is the most recent addition in 2003. It is built atop the old Music Circus tent foundations. Next to that is the McClatchy Main stage, originally built as a television studio, which was renovated at the same time the pavilion was built. It is the smaller of the venues and provides seating for only 300. The Sacramento BalletSacramento Philharmonic Orchestra and the Sacramento Opera perform at the Community Center Theater.

Professional theatre is represented in Sacramento by a number of companies. Broadway Sacramento and its Summer stock theatreBroadway At Music Circus, lure many directors, performers, and artists from New York and Los Angeles to work alongside a large local staff for their productions at the Wells Fargo Pavilion. During the fall, winter and spring seasons Broadway Sacramento brings bus and truck tours to the Community Center Theater. At the B Street Theatre, smaller and more intimate professional productions are performed as well as a children’s theatre. In February 2018, the theatre moved from its original location and opened a larger theatre complex in the heart of Midtown. Rounding out the professional companies is Capital Stage, which performed aboard the Delta King until the end of the 2010–2011 season and soon took up residence at its own venue along the J-Street corridor.

The Sacramento area has one of the largest collection of community theatres in California. Some of these include the Thistle Dew Dessert Theatre and Playwrights Workshop, Davis Musical Theatre Co., El Dorado Musical Theatre, Runaway Stage Productions, River City Theatre Company, Flying Monkey Productions, The Actor’s Theatre, KOLT Run Productions, Kookaburra Productions, Big Idea Theatre, Celebration Arts, Lambda Player, Light Opera Theatre of Sacramento, Synergy Stage and the historic Eagle Theatre. The Sacramento Shakespeare Festival provides entertainment under the stars every summer in William Land Park. Many of these theatres compete annually for the Elly Awards overseen by The Sacramento Area Regional Theatre Alliance or SARTA.

Visual arts

The Sacramento Metropolitan Arts Commission is an organization which was established as the Sacramento arts council in 1977 to provide several arts programs for the city. These include Art in Public Places, Arts Education, Grants and Cultural Programs, Poet Laureate Program, Arts Stabilization Programs and Other Resources and opportunities.

Sacramento Second Saturday Art Walk is a program of local art galleries that stay open into the late evenings every second Saturday of each month, providing a unique experience for the local population as well as tourists to view original art and meet the artists themselves.

Museums

The Crocker Art Museum is the oldest public art museum in the Western United States and has one of the premier public art collections in the country.

Sacramento has several major museums. The Crocker Art Museum is the oldest public art museum west of the Mississippi River. On July 26, 2007, the museum broke ground for an expansion that more than tripled the museum’s floor space. The modern architecture is very different from the museum’s original Victorian style building. Construction was completed in 2010.

Also of interest is the Governor’s Mansion State Historic Park, a large Victorian Mansion which was home to 13 of California’s Governors, as well as the official residence for current governor Jerry Brown following renovations in 2015. The Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park, which was completely restored in 2006, serves as the State’s official address for diplomatic and business receptions. Guided public tours are available. The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts, home of the California Hall of Fame, is a cultural destination dedicated to telling the rich history of California and its unique influence on the world of ideas, innovation, art and culture. The museum educates tens of thousands of school children through inspiring programs, sharing with world visitors California’s rich art, history and cultural legacy through dynamic exhibits, and serving as a public forum and international meeting place.

The California State Railroad Museum in Old Sacramento has historical exhibits and live steam locomotives that patrons may ride. The California Automobile Museum, located just south of Old Sacramento, is filled with automotive history and vehicles from 1880 to 2006 and is the oldest non-profit automotive museum in the West. The mission of it is to preserve, promote, and teach automotive culture and its influence on our lives—past, present and future. In addition, the Sacramento History Museum, in the heart of Old Sacramento, focuses on the history of Sacramento from the region’s pre-Gold Rush history through the present day.

There is a Museum Day held in Sacramento every year, when 26 museums in the greater Sacramento area offer free admission. The 2009 Sacramento Museum Day brought out more than 80,000 people, the largest number the event has gathered. Sacramento Museum Day is held every year on the first Saturday of February.

Music

Tower Records was started and based in Sacramento until its closing Rappers C-BoMarvalessLunasicc, and more recently rappers like Mozzy and Chuuwee are among those native to the area. Classical music is widely available. The Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra, the Sacramento Baroque Soloists, the Sacramento Choral Society & Orchestra, the Sacramento Youth Symphony, the Sacramento Master Singers, the Sacramento Children’s Chorus, and the Camellia Symphony each present a full season of concerts.

Each year, the city hosts the Sammies, the Sacramento Music Awards. Sacramento also has a reputation as a center for Dixieland jazz, because of the Sacramento Jazz Jubilee which is held every Memorial Day weekend. Events and performances are held in multiple locations throughout the city. Each year thousands of jazz fans from all over the world visit for this one weekend.

A growing number of rock, hardcore and metal bands hail from the Sacramento area, including TeslaDeftonesPapa RoachWill HavenTrash Talk, Dance Gavin DanceA Lot Like BirdsFarCAKE!!!Oleander and Steel Breeze; plus some other famous musicians like record producer and recording artist Charlie PeacockBob Stubbs of Social Distortion and Craig Chaquico of Jefferson Starship. Along with these bands, the Aftershock Festival has been held at Discovery Park since 2012.

Scottish pop band Middle of the Road sang kindly of Sacramento in their 1972 European hit song “Sacramento”. Experimental groups such as HellaDeath Grips, and Tera Melos also come out of Sacramento.

Film

Sacramento is home to the Sacramento French Film Festival, a cultural event held every year in July that features U.S. premieres of French films and classic masterpieces of French cinema and the Sacramento Japanese Film Festival, also held in July. In addition, Sacramento is home to the Trash Film Orgy, a summer film festival celebrating the absurd, B-movies, horror, monster, exploitation. Founded in 2007, the Sacramento Horror Film Festival showcases feature-length and short films as well as live musical and theatrical performances in the horror and macabre genres.

Of note, Sacramento has been home to various actors, including Eddie Murphy, who resided in the Riverlake community of Pocket-Greenhaven with his then wife Nicole Mitchell Murphy, a fashion model and Sacramento native. It is also the home of director Greta Gerwig, whose solo directorial debut Lady Bird is set in Sacramento.

Cuisine

The Sacramento Theatre Companyis Sacramento’s oldest theatre troupe

In 2012, Sacramento started the marketing campaign as “America’s Farm-to-Fork Capital” due to Sacramento’s many restaurants that source their food locally from the numerous surrounding farms. The city has an annual Farm-to-Fork festival that showcases various grocers and growers in the industry. In 2012, The Kitchen was nominated for Outstanding Restaurant by the James Beard Foundation. It continues to excel, earning the AAA‘s Five Diamond dining award since 2011. Sacramento is home to well-known cookbook authors, Biba Caggiano of Biba’s Restaurant and Mai Pham of Lemongrass and Star Ginger.

Sacramento is also known for its beverage culture, with keystone events that include Cal Expo‘s Grape and Gourmet, Sacramento Beer Week, and Sacramento Cocktail Week. Its growing beer scene is evident, with over 60 microbreweries in the region as of 2017. Some local brews include Track 7 Brewing Company, Big Stump Brew Co, Oak Park Brewing Co., and Sactown Union Brewery. Numerous beer festivals around the region highlight both local and visitor beers. In addition to festivals in Elk Grove, Davis, Roseville, Placerville, and Woodland, Sacramento hosts the annual California Beer Craft Summit, an exposition dedicated to the art of brewing. The summit also hosts the largest beer festival on the West Coast, featuring over 160 breweries in downtown Sacramento.

Sacramento’s contemporary culture is reflected in its coffee. An “underrated coffee city”, Sacramento has above-average marks for local coffee. The city has numerous community roasters and coffee shops. Examples include Temple Coffee, Insight Coffee Roasters, Old Soul Co., Chocolate Fish Roasters, Naked Lounge, Pachamama Roasting Co., and Identity Coffees. In addition to local brands, the region offers other chains like Starbucks, Peet’s Coffee & Tea, and Philz Coffee.

LGBTQ

Sacramento has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita, ranking seventh among major American cities, and third in California behind San Francisco and slightly behind Oakland, with roughly 10% of the city’s total population identifying themselves as gay, lesbian, transgender, or bisexual. Lavender Heights is the hub for LGBTQ activities in the city and is a centrally located district in Midtown Sacramento centered within and around K & 20th streets. The area owes its name to the high number of gay-owned homes and businesses residing there. The area is also home to many of the city’s LGBTQ inclusive music and arts festivals, including the Second Saturday Block Party from May to September.

Old Sacramento

The oldest part of the town besides Sutter’s Fort is Old Sacramento, which consists of cobbled streets and many historic buildings, several from the 1850s and 1860s. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction, with rides on steam-hauled historic trains and horse-drawn carriages.

The historic buildings include the Lady Adams Building, built by the passengers and ship’s carpenters of the ship Lady Adams. Having survived the Great Conflagration of November 1852, it is the oldest surviving building in Sacramento other than Sutter’s Fort.

Another surviving landmark is the B.F. Hastings building, built in 1853. Early home of the California Supreme Court and the location of the office of Theodore Judah, it also was the western terminus of the Pony Express.

The “Big Four Building”, built in 1852, was home to the offices of Collis HuntingtonMark HopkinsLeland Stanford, and Charles Crocker. The Central Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Railroad were founded there. The original building was destroyed in 1963 for the construction of Interstate 5, but was re-created using original elements in 1965. It is now a National Historic Landmark. Also of historic interest is the Eagle Theatre (Sacramento, California), a reconstruction of California’s first permanent theatre in its original location.

Chinatown

Historic Sacramento Chinatown Paifang.

The Opium Wars of the 1840s and 1850s, along with the Gold Rush, brought many Chinese to California. Most arrived at San Francisco, which was then the largest city in California and known as “Dai Fow” (“Big City”, Chinese: 大埠, Jyutpingdaai6 fau6). Some eventually came to Sacramento, then the second-largest city in California and consequently called “Yee Fow” (“Second City”, Chinese: 二埠, Jyutping: ji6 fau6). Today the city is known as 萨克拉门托 (pinyinSàkèlāméntuō) by Mainland Chinese and as 沙加緬度 (pinyin: Shājiāmiǎnduó) by Taiwanese.

Sacramento’s Chinatown was located on “I” Street from Second to Sixth Streets. At the time, this area of “I” Street was considered a health hazard because, lying within a levee zone, it was lower than other parts of the city, which were situated on higher land. Throughout Sacramento’s Chinatown history, there were fires, acts of discrimination, and prejudicial legislation such as the Chinese Exclusion Act that was not repealed until 1943. The mysterious fires were thought to be set off by those who did not take a liking to the Chinese working class. Ordinances on what was viable building material were set into place to try to get the Chinese to move out. Newspapers such as The Sacramento Union wrote stories at the time that portrayed the Chinese in an unfavorable light to inspire ethnic discrimination and drive the Chinese away. As the years passed, a railroad was created over parts of the Chinatown, and further policies and laws would make it even harder for Chinese workers to sustain a living in Sacramento.

While most of Sacramento’s Chinatown has now been razed, a small Chinatown mall remains as well as a museum dedicated to the history of Sacramento’s Chinatown and the contributions Chinese Americans have made to the city. Amtrak sits along what was part of Sacramento’s Chinatown “I” Street.

Parks and recreation

The Capitol Mall is a major, monumental parkwayleading from Tower Bridge to the California Capitol.

Sacramento boasts an extensive park system consisting of over 5,000 acres (2,023 ha) of parkland and recreation centers. The city features a collection of smaller parks in the Downtown districts, including Crocker Park, Pioneer Landing and Southside Park. Popular parks outside the central core include American River Parkway which spans 23 miles along the American River, and William Land Park.

In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that Sacramento was tied with San Francisco and Boston for having the 3rd best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes the city’s median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.

Sacramento is a hotbed for high school rugby. Jesuit High is the recent defending national champion (winning five times in total). Their arch-rival school Christian Brothers came in second nationwide. Burbank, Del Campo and Vacaville have also placed well in the national competition over the years. The Sacramento Valley High School Rugby Conference hosts the largest and arguably deepest preseason youth and high school rugby tournament in America.

Sacramento hosts some recreational facilities and events. The Jedediah Smith Memorial Trail that runs between Old Sacramento and Folsom Lake grants access to the American River Parkway, a natural area that includes more than 5,000 acres (20 km2) of undeveloped land. It attracts cyclists and equestrians from across the state. The California State Fair is held in Sacramento each year at the end of the summer, ending on Labor Day. In 2010, the State Fair moved to July. More than one million people attended this fair in 2001.

Among other recreational options in Sacramento is Discovery Park, a 275-acre (1.1 km2) park studded with stands of mature trees and grasslands. This park is situated where the American River flows into the Sacramento River.

In amateur sports, Sacramento claims many prominent Olympians such as Mark Spitz, Debbie Meyer (6 time gold medalist in for US swimming), Mike Burton, Summer Sanders (Gold medalist in swimming, and trained in childhood by Debbie Meyer at Rio Del Oro Racquet Club), Jeff Float (all swimming), and Billy Mills (track). Coach Sherm Chavoor founded his world-famous Arden Hills Swim Club just east of the city and trained Burton, Spitz and others.

The Government of Sacramento operates as a charter city (as opposed to a general law city) under the Charter of the City of Sacramento. The elected government is composed of the Sacramento City Council with 8 city council districts and the Mayor of Sacramento, which operate under a mayor-council government.

In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the City Manager, Sacramento Police Department (SPD), the Sacramento Fire Department (SFD), City Clerk, City Attorney, and City Treasurer.

As of 2016, the mayor is Darrell Steinberg and the council members are Angelique Ashby, Allen Warren, Jeff Harris, Steve Hansen, Jay Schenirer, Rich Jennings, and Larry Carr.

The City of Sacramento is part of Sacramento County, for which the government of Sacramento County is defined and authorized under the California ConstitutionCalifornia law, and the Charter of the County of Sacramento.

As the capital city of California, Sacramento is home to the Government of California, as the seat of the Governor of California, the California Assembly, and one of the three homes of the California Supreme Court, as well as the numerous California state agencies.

State and Federal representation

In the California State Senate, Sacramento is the heart of the 6th district, represented by Democrat Richard Pan. In the California State Assembly, it is split between the 7th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Kevin McCarty, and the 9th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Cooper.

In the United States House of Representatives, Sacramento forms the majority of the California’s 6th congressional district, represented by Democrat Doris Matsui.

Magazines

Newspapers

Top two newspapers
  • The Sacramento Bee, the primary newspaper, was founded in 1857 by James McClatchyThe Sacramento Bee is the flagship paper of The McClatchy Company, the second-largest newspaper publisher in the United States. The Sacramento Bee has won five Pulitzer Prizes in its history and numerous other awards, including many for its progressive public service campaigns promoting free speech (the Bee often criticized government policy, and uncovered many scandals hurting Californians), anti-racism (the Bee supported the Union during the American Civil War and later publicly denounced the Ku Klux Klan), worker’s rights (the Bee has a strong history of supporting unionization), and environmental protection (leading numerous tree-planting campaigns and fighting against environmental destruction in the Sierra Nevada).
  • The Sacramento Union, the Sacramento Bees rival, started publishing six years earlier in 1851; it closed its doors in 1994, with a revival attempt lasting from 2005 to 2009. Writer and journalist Mark Twain wrote for the Union in 1866.
Other newspapers

Radio

Television stations

Channel Call Sign Network Subchannels
3 KCRA-TV NBC MeTV on 3.2
6 KVIE PBS PBS Encore on 6.2, World on 6.3, PBS Kids on 6.4
8 KBTV-CD Independent Ethnic Infomercials on 8.2, SBN on 8.3, Independent on 8.4, Retro Television Network on 8.5, HOT TV on 8.6, Rev’n on 8.7
10 KXTV ABC Justice Network on 10.2, Heroes & Icons on 10.3
13 KOVR CBS Decades on 13.2
19 KUVS-DT Univision Bounce TV on 19.3, Escape on 19.4
27 K20JX-D 3ABN
29 KSPX-TV Ion Qubo on 29.2, Ion Life on 29.3, Ion Shop on 29.4, QVC on 29.5, HSN on 29.6
31 KMAX-TV CW
32 KSTV-LP Azteca
33 KCSO-LD Telemundo
40 KTXL Fox Antenna TV on 40.2, This TV on 40.3
58 KQCA MyNetworkTV Movies! on 58.2
64 KTFK Telefutura

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